Rayana Ghosh    
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Overpopulation in India and its Effects   

Auteur : Rayana

Enquête : -> Les besoins de ma ville

Pays : Inde

Langue : Anglais


Every nook and corner of India is a clear display of increasing population. Whether you are in a metro station, airport, railway station, road, highway, bus stop, hospital, shopping mall, market, temple, or even in a social/ religious gathering, we see all these places are overcrowded at any time of the day. This is a clear indication of overpopulation in the country.
According to the Indian census, carried out in 2011, the population of India was exactly 1,210,193,422, which means India has crossed the 1-billion mark. This is the second most populous country of the world after China and the various studies have projected that India will be world’s number-1 populous country, surpassing China, by 2025.

The two main common causes leading to over population in India are:
• The birth rate is still higher than the death rate.
• The fertility rate due to the population policies is much higher compared to other countries.

The above causes are interrelated to the various social issues in our country which are leading to over population.
• Early Marriage and Universal Marriage System: Even though legally the marriageable age of a girl is 18 years, the concept of early marriage still prevails.
• Poverty and Illiteracy: Another factor for the rapid growth of population is poverty. Impoverished families have this notion that more the number of members in the family, more will be the numbers to earn income. Illiteracy is thus another cause of over population
• Age old cultural norm: Sons are the bread earners of the families in India. This age old thought puts considerable pressure on the parents to produce children till a male child is born..
• Illegal migration: Last but not the least, we cannot ignore the fact that illegal migration is continuously taking place from Bangladesh, Nepal leading to increased population density.

Effects of Over Population
Some major impacts of high population are as follows:
• Unemployment: The number of illiterate persons increases every year.
• Pressure on infrastructure: Development of infrastructural facilities is unfortunately not keeping pace with the growth of population.
• Resource utilization: Land areas, water resources, forests are over exploited. There is also scarcity of resources.
• Decreased production and increased costs: Food production and distribution have not been able to catch up with the increasing population and hence the costs of production have increased. Inflation is the major consequence of over population.
• Inequitable income distribution

The Government of India, politicians, policy makers should initiate a bold population policy so that the economic growth of the country can keep pace with the demands of a growing population. Increasing the welfare and status of women and girls, spread of education, increasing awareness for the use of contraceptives and family planning methods, free distribution of contraceptives among the poor, encouraging female empowerment, more health care centers for the poor , to name a few, can play a major role in controlling population.
Experts are hopeful that by increasing public awareness and enlisting strict population control norms by the Government will definitely lead the way for the country’s economic prosperity.

Mots-clés : overpopulation, economic crisis, causes and effects, prevention

Contexte NEOS : Nature et environnement


Économie et innovation